Diabetes treatment

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All that glitters is not gold- why we need better trials and reporting

In an age of increasing global information overload, it is becoming progressively more difficult to discern real health and safety signals, or potentially beneficial possibilities, from background noise. The explosion in exploratory analyses of emerging large-scale medical record databases and registries

Ensuring universal access to insulin – the International Insulin Foundation position statement

Nearly a century since its discovery, insulin remains beyond the reach of many people living in parts of the developing world – and access to this life-sustaining medication is problematic for many, many more. The International Insulin Foundation (IIF) was founded in 2002 to improve access to insulin in resource-poor countries.

Offloading the diabetic foot in the developing world

Diabetic foot complications are the most common cause of hospital admissions among people with diabetes. Worldwide, more than 1 million amputations are performed each year as a consequence of diabetes, which means that a lower limb is lost to diabetes somewhere in the world every 30 seconds. If a person with diabetes has a lesion on the sole of a foot, offloading bodyweight is of vital importance; all therapeutic efforts are bound to fail if he or she continues to walk on an ulcer.


Diabetes and eye disease: what people with diabetes and healthcare professionals need to know

The good news is that most cases of severe vision loss due to diabetes are preventable; the bad news is that tens of thousands of people lose vision to diabetes each year despite all we know about prevention and treatment. Indeed, diabetes is a leading cause of vision loss around the world. Compared with the general population, people with diabetes have a 25-fold increased risk of blindness.


Barriers to self-management in people affected by chronic disease

Diabetes healthcare providers are no strangers to the self-management model. Indeed, it could be said that diabetes is the field in which the self-management model has been most thoroughly developed and implemented. The marriage of expert clinical care with self-management by the individual is an ideal union and an increasingly common objective. It is an excellent goal – one that is achievable by many. Yet a number of systematic barriers to self-management exists.

Self-monitoring of blood glucose for people with type 2 diabetes: the need for better understanding

Diabetes increases a person’s risk of developing multiple health complications. But the risk of these can be significantly reduced by close control of blood glucose. Although directly monitoring glucose levels to inform adjustments in insulin levels is now a proven part of self-management for people with type 1 diabetes, the role of glucose monitoring for people with type 2 diabetes is less well established.

IDF guideline on self-management of blood glucose

In October 2008, the IDF Task Force on Clinical Guidelines, in conjunction with the Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose nternational Working Group, convened a workshop in Amsterdam to address the use of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in people with type 2 diabetes who are not treated with insulin. The recently published guidelines on the use of SMBG in people with type 2 diabetes were developed based on the findings of that workshop. A summary of the findings and recommendations is provided in this article.

Low testosterone in men with type 2 diabetes - a growing public health concern

Testosterone is the principal sex hormone in men. It is important not only for normal sexual function but also for maintaining bone and muscle strength, mental and physical energy, and overall well-being. Low testosterone is associated with diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, increased fat mass, decreased muscle, bone mass and energy, depression, and anaemia. Type 2 diabetes may be one of the commonest causes of  hypogonadism – a lack of function in the testes, which adversely affects testosterone production.

Diabetes and the promise of a preventive and therapeutic role for vitamin D

Vitamin D is naturally present in a few foods and produced in the body when ultraviolet rays from sunlight come into contact with the skin. This fat-soluble vitamin is also available as a dietary supplement. The principal biological function of vitamin D is to maintain levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood, aiding the absorption of calcium, and helping to form and maintain strong bones. Recent research findings have suggested that vitamin D also may provide protection from osteoporosis, high blood pressure, some cancers, and several autoimmune diseases, including diabetes.

A gender perspective of diabetes and cardiovascular disease - the need for deeper understanding

Rates of diabetes continue to increase rapidly around the world. The current prevalence of about 5.1% is set to rise to 6.3% by 2025 – 333 million people with the condition. Further huge numbers of people are unaware that they have undiscovered diabetes and pre-diabetes conditions. The number of people with impaired glucose tolerance will increase from 314 million to 472 million over the next 15 years or so. These people are at dangerously high risk both for future diabetes complications and early death through cardiovascular disease.

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