Type 2 diabetes

English

Is type 2 diabetes preventable? What the evidence-based guidelines say

Diabetes is the commonest non-communicable disease worldwide. Researchers predict it will increase by around 160% by the year 2025. Sadly, most of this increase will occur in developing countries, which have the least resources to deal with the problem. Even in the most developed countries, health systems are struggling to meet demands for services. In recent years, this has led to a strong focus on prevention research.

A threat to ethnic communities: diabetes and heart disease

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the USA has labelled diabetes 'the epidemic of our time'. Indeed, diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death by disease in the USA, with 75% of diabetes-related deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease. According to the US Office of Minority Health, the prevalence of diabetes among African-Americans is about 70% higher than in Caucasians, and the prevalence in Hispanics is nearly double that of Caucasians. Currently it is estimated that 2.3 million African-Americans and 1.2 million Hispanics have Type 2 diabetes in the USA alone.

DEHKO: Finland moves on primary prevention

In January 2000, the Development Programme for the Prevention and Care of Diabetes 2000-2010 (DEHKO) was officially approved as Finland's national diabetes programme. The first audit of the programme in 2003 has reported that the implementation process is well underway in both primary and specialized healthcare. The atmosphere among healthcare providers is positive and enthusiastic, and the word DEHKO is now firmly established in the lexicon of diabetes care in Finland.

Japanese school programmes combat type 2 diabetes

So-called 'late onset diabetes' is now more widely termed Type 2 diabetes. And for very good reasons. It was previously the case that childhood and adolescent diabetes was nearly exclusively Type 1 diabetes and that Type 2 diabetes very rarely affected the young. Sadly, this is no longer true. As the spread of 'westernized' lifestyles gives rise to a steep increase in rates of obesity worldwide, Type 2 diabetes is rapidly emerging among children and adolescents.

Successful multiple risk factor intervention in type 2 diabetes: the Steno-2 triumph

Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) between two- and six-fold, and shortens life expectancy by 5 to 10 years. Once a person with diabetes has developed severe vascular complications, they will

Clinical trials confirm that type 2 diabetes is preventable

Until recently, randomized clinical trials offered only limited proof that Type 2 diabetes is preventable by changes in lifestyle. Fortunately, this gap has now been filled. Several major lifestyle intervention trials have been successfully completed. The results are consistent: the risk of Type 2 diabetes can be halved in people who are at high risk; the effect of lifestyle change is rapid; the lifestyle changes required to achieve a significant risk reduction do not have to be drastic; and benefits are similar in different ethnic groups.

Fetal origins of diabetes in developing countries

There is a rapidly rising epidemic of Type 2 diabetes throughout the world. It is particularly severe in developing countries. In 1995, 62% of people with diabetes in the world lived in developing countries. By 2025 this is predicted to rise to more than 75%. In India there are an estimated 25 million people with diabetes, and this will rise to more than 60 million by 2025. One in five people with diabetes in the world will then be Indian. A parallel rise in ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is also projected. Other developing countries will be similarly affected.

Aetiology of type 2 diabetes: the road to consensus

In 1965, the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee report on diabetes warned of the danger of an emerging diabetes epidemic. At that time, prevalence rarely exceeded 2%. Today, we know that more than 194 million people worldwide have diabetes. In 2025, the number of people with diabetes in the world will exceed 333 million… unless we act now.

Poverty versus genes: the social context of Type 2 diabetes

Together with its 'twin sister', childhood obesity, Type 2 diabetes is spreading among young people around the world. This constitutes a serious public health problem; by their 30s, generations of young people will have been living with Type 2

Type 2 diabetes: questions of prevention

President's editorial

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