Type 2 diabetes


Aetiology of type 2 diabetes: the road to consensus

In 1965, the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee report on diabetes warned of the danger of an emerging diabetes epidemic. At that time, prevalence rarely exceeded 2%. Today, we know that more than 194 million people worldwide have diabetes. In 2025, the number of people with diabetes in the world will exceed 333 million… unless we act now.

Poverty versus genes: the social context of Type 2 diabetes

Together with its 'twin sister', childhood obesity, Type 2 diabetes is spreading among young people around the world. This constitutes a serious public health problem; by their 30s, generations of young people will have been living with Type 2

Type 2 diabetes: questions of prevention

President's editorial

Globesity: a crisis of growing proportions

In the United States, the latest data show that two out of three adults are overweight, and nearly one in three is obese. Alarmingly, similar trends are emerging around the world. In countries as diverse as the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Kuwait, and Mexico at least half the population is overweight and one in five is obese.

The obesity campaign view of diabetes prevention

Obesity is an epidemic accelerating out of control. It is the driving force behind an equally dramatic explosion of Type 2 diabetes, both in adults and now alarmingly among children. Clearly, strategies aimed at improving the prevention and management of obesity must be developed. Not confined to affluent nations, the obesity epidemic imposes a double burden on countries where people are still struggling to overcome generations of chronic undernutrition. Economic progress in developing countries heralds changes in

Identifying the risk factors: diabetes in Asian Indians

As prevalence of diabetes increases globally, developing countries such as India face the massive burden of a diabetes epidemic in the urban population. Migrant Asians from the Indian subcontinent are known to have a higher prevalence of Type 2 diabetes than the host populations and other migrant ethnic groups. Studies conducted in several Asian countries in the last decade highlighted a rising prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in the urban population. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is also on the rise, indicating a possible further increase in diabetes in the future.

The diabetes epidemic in full flight: forecasting the future

Were there warnings that diabetes would become the epidemic of the 21st century? In the early 1970s, Peter Bennett and co-workers reported on the extraordinarily high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in Pima Native Americans. In 1975, we reported the high rates of diabetes in the Micronesian Nauruans in the Pacific. Similar findings followed in other Pacific and Asian island populations. They all indicated the potential for a future global epidemic.

Glucagon-like peptide 1: new therapies for Type 2 diabetes

We usually assume that the ups and downs of blood glucose are solely responsible for changes in the release of insulin into the circulation, such as in response to a meal. However, the release of insulin from the pancreas is supported by signals from the alimentary canal (gut). When food is transported from the stomach into the small intestine, from which glucose, fat and proteins are absorbed into the blood, gut hormones are released into the circulation. Around 50%

Food power: a vegetarian approach to diabetes

Recent research has demonstrated the health benefits of diet and exercise for people with diabetes. The positive results offer an optimistic future to millions of people with the condition, and the many millions more who are at risk from diabetes around the world. We now know that therapeutic lifestyle interventions are highly effective in both preventing and managing the condition. In people with Type 2 diabetes, lifestyle changes can reduce and even eliminate the need for

Detect-2: early detection of type 2 diabetes and IGT

Type 2 diabetes has reached pandemic levels, with the global number of people with the condition predicted to exceed 330 million by 2025. Overall, at least 50% of those with diabetes presently do not know that they have the condition. In developing countries the proportion with undiagnosed diabetes is considerably higher. At the time of clinical diagnosis, every second person with diabetes has already developed one or more micro- or macrovascular complications.