Type 2 diabetes


'Double diabetes' in young people and how to treat it

In most countries around the world, there has been an increase in the number of children and young people with diabetes. While in general it is relatively easy to distinguish whether a child or teenager has type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes, in some cases, young people have elements of both kinds of the condition. This new phenomenon has been labelled ‘double diabetes’ or ‘hybrid diabetes’. Francine Kaufman reports on the existence of double diabetes and the implications of this condition for the initial categorization and treatment of young people who are diagnosed with diabetes.

Glucose control: closing the gap between guidelines and practice

The Global Partnership for Effective Diabetes Management is a multidisciplinary task force of international diabetes experts. The group came together in 2004 with the objective of supporting improvements in treatment outcomes for people with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the Global Partnership was not to develop another set of guidelines, but to provide practical advice to help more people to achieve good glucose control.

A global guideline for type 2 diabetes: using a new 'levels of care' approach

The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) is not in the business of delivering clinical care to people with diabetes; but it is committed to the view that everyone with diabetes should benefit from the best possible care that could be available to them. One foundation of such care is to ensure that it is based on the best possible scientific knowledge. Here we describe the approach behind the recently published IDF Global guideline for Type 2 diabetes, an evidence-based guideline designed to assist care at different levels of resources.

The dietetics of smoking cessation in people with diabetes

Compared to people without the condition, people with diabetes are at increased risk from vascular diseases – including heart attack and stroke. This risk is further increased in people with diabetes who smoke; smokers with the condition should be advised by their health carers to stop smoking as a matter of urgency. But giving up the habit is not easy. Successful cessation requires people to surmount a number of difficulties, including strong physical, psychological and behavioural

The endocannabinoid system: linking body weight, metabolic disorders and tobacco dependence

Treatment with the newly developed drug rimonabant has been found to help to reduce body weight and improve cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. It has also been shown to help smokers to stop using tobacco without the weight gain often associated with cessation. Beat Lutz reports on the recently discovered body system that links obesity, metabolic disorders and smoking, and the potential of rimonabant as a therapeutic option to tackle these multiple cardiovascular risk factors.

A very bad start: smoking, pregnancy and diabetes

The disease process that leads to the development of type 2 diabetes may start in the womb at the very beginning of life. Fetal growth and birth weight are predictive of diabetes risk in later years. This suggests that the factors that influence the rate of fetal growth – and therefore birth weight – may also activate the process that leads to type 2 diabetes in adult life. It is well known that smoking during

Worsening the blow: the effects of smoking on diabetes complications

Cigarette smoking is a serious hazard to health. Yet, although as a group people with diabetes are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, this does not appear to influence smoking habits among them. Tobacco use among people with diabetes is strongly associated with a further increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular complications. Furthermore, research has indicated that smoking has negative effects on the metabolism of glucose and lipids (fat), leading

Childhood obesity and type 2 diabetes: a growing public health challenge in UAE

In the oil-exporting Arab countries – Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) – the economic growth and development of the past three decades have been dramatic. This socio-economic progress has brought benefits to many people in the region, such as improved access to health care, education, and safe drinking water. However, economic development has set the scene for the

Diabetes care in China: meeting the challenge

In both human and economic terms, diabetes is becoming one of the most serious and costly health conditions worldwide. Economic development, bringing changes from a traditional to a modernized lifestyle, is driving a huge increase in the number of people with obesity-related type 2 diabetes in China. The extraordinary size of the problem is worrying; if current trends continue, diabetes will become a massive health burden in China. In this article, Changyu Pan looks at the status of diabetes care in China and highlights the need for regional and national initiatives to

Gambling with addiction: dangerous beliefs about smoking and diabetes

Smoking among people with diabetes parallels that of the general population. However, compared to non-smokers with diabetes, people with diabetes who smoke have twice the risk of premature death. The risk of complications associated with tobacco use and diabetes in combination are nearly 14 times higher than the risk