Women

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A gender perspective of diabetes and cardiovascular disease - the need for deeper understanding

Rates of diabetes continue to increase rapidly around the world. The current prevalence of about 5.1% is set to rise to 6.3% by 2025 – 333 million people with the condition. Further huge numbers of people are unaware that they have undiscovered diabetes and pre-diabetes conditions. The number of people with impaired glucose tolerance will increase from 314 million to 472 million over the next 15 years or so. These people are at dangerously high risk both for future diabetes complications and early death through cardiovascular disease.

Diabetes and depression in older women - double the risk, double the burden

In the USA, approximately 24 million people have diabetes; more than half are women, and projections to 2050 suggest that women of all ages will continue to represent more than half of all cases. A growing concern  for  women with diabetes is the increased risk to many of developing major depression. The results from a recent meta-analysis of 42 studies showed that women with diabetes have a higher prevalence of depression (28%) than men with diabetes (18%).

Preventing obesity in women of all ages - a public health priority

Most developed countries and a growing number of low- to middle-income countries have seen an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and the trend is accelerating. Obesity represents a major public health issue in women due to its association with increased insensitivity to insulin, negative implications for reproductive health, including polycystic ovary syndrome and infertility, higher obstetric risks, gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Social injustice and unmet needs: women and diabetes in the Americas

Diabetes has become an important cause of death and disability in the Americas and worldwide. In the region comprising South America, Central America and the Caribbean, and North America, the number of people with diabetes is expected to rise from 13 million to 33 million by 2030. An even more marked increase is set to occur in Latin America and the Caribbean, where most of the nations are considered to be developing countries. This rising prevalence of diabetes is already having grave effects on societies, and women throughout the continent are baring the brunt of the pandemic.

Reproductive health in women with diabetes - the need for pre-conception care and education

Diabetes provokes a range of reproductive and sexual health problems: menstrual changes, fertility disorders, urinary and vaginal infections, urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction. Early diagnosis and treatment of these problems, with well-planned pre-conception care, can protect maternal and infant health. In this report, Seyda Ozcan and Nevin Sahin call for reproductive and sexual healthcare to be included in women’s diabetes management plan.

New findings in gestational diabetes - the HAPO Study

The diagnosis of gestational diabetes has for decades been based either on criteria that predict a mother’s risk for developing type 2 diabetes in the future, or those used for non-pregnant women. But gestational diabetes also carries a risk for the baby. Moreover, the level at which maternal blood glucose provokes risk for the foetus remains unclear.


Managing diabetes and preventing complications during pregnancy and delivery

The risk to a woman of having diabetes during her reproductive years varies worldwide and compares with the regional risks for the condition in general – on average between 5% and 8%. In all pregnant women, the risk for gestational diabetes should be assessed and screened early if a number of risk factors are present. Indeed, any form of diabetes during gestation, whether it develops during pregnancy or is present before conception, requires excellent multi-facetted management before and during pregnancy, and around the time of delivery.

After a pregnancy with diabetes - a window of opportunity

The period after a woman gives birth provides a window of opportunity to impact on her short- and long-term future health. The end of a pregnancy heralds a transition both physically and mentally, and in terms of self-care. After delivery, most of the hormones that make a woman with gestational diabetes insensitive to the action of insulin are no longer present. In women with pre-existing diabetes, insulin needs drop dramatically; some women requiring insulin therapy to live may not need insulin for up to 72 hours.

Social stigma and discrimination: a care crisis for young women with diabetes in India

In most regions of the world, type 1 diabetes is more common in girls than in boys. Since the 1970s, a female excess has been reported in populations of African and Asian origins. Indeed, most countries have reported either no gender difference or increased incidence of type 1 diabetes in girls. Contrary to these worldwide findings, certain endocrine centres in northern India report a higher outpatient attendance of men and boys with type 1 diabetes.

The fattening rooms of Calabar - a breeding ground for diabesity

Calabar is the capital city of Cross River State of Nigeria. It is a cosmopolitan town with a population of about half a million people. The population of Cross River State stands at around 2.5 million. Inhabitants of the region are mostly farmers, fishermen and civil servants. The Efik in south Calabar are a proud people with a rich cultural heritage. In Efik communities, the preservation of centuries-old values and customs is central to the tradition of ‘fattening rooms’.

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