Research and studies


Poverty versus genes: the social context of Type 2 diabetes

Together with its 'twin sister', childhood obesity, Type 2 diabetes is spreading among young people around the world. This constitutes a serious public health problem; by their 30s, generations of young people will have been living with Type 2

Nuts! their health benefits

Although rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are declining in many developed countries, it remains the number one cause of death. In developing countries, CVD rates are increasing. People with diabetes are two to four times more likely to develop CVD than people without diabetes. The prevention and treatment of CVD by diet is an important issue both for persons with diabetes and those without. Dr Alexandra Chisholm explains the benefits of eating nuts as part of a healthy balanced diet.

The obesity campaign view of diabetes prevention

Obesity is an epidemic accelerating out of control. It is the driving force behind an equally dramatic explosion of Type 2 diabetes, both in adults and now alarmingly among children. Clearly, strategies aimed at improving the prevention and management of obesity must be developed. Not confined to affluent nations, the obesity epidemic imposes a double burden on countries where people are still struggling to overcome generations of chronic undernutrition. Economic progress in developing countries heralds changes in

Identifying the risk factors: diabetes in Asian Indians

As prevalence of diabetes increases globally, developing countries such as India face the massive burden of a diabetes epidemic in the urban population. Migrant Asians from the Indian subcontinent are known to have a higher prevalence of Type 2 diabetes than the host populations and other migrant ethnic groups. Studies conducted in several Asian countries in the last decade highlighted a rising prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in the urban population. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is also on the rise, indicating a possible further increase in diabetes in the future.

The diabetes epidemic in full flight: forecasting the future

Were there warnings that diabetes would become the epidemic of the 21st century? In the early 1970s, Peter Bennett and co-workers reported on the extraordinarily high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in Pima Native Americans. In 1975, we reported the high rates of diabetes in the Micronesian Nauruans in the Pacific. Similar findings followed in other Pacific and Asian island populations. They all indicated the potential for a future global epidemic.

Glucagon-like peptide 1: new therapies for Type 2 diabetes

We usually assume that the ups and downs of blood glucose are solely responsible for changes in the release of insulin into the circulation, such as in response to a meal. However, the release of insulin from the pancreas is supported by signals from the alimentary canal (gut). When food is transported from the stomach into the small intestine, from which glucose, fat and proteins are absorbed into the blood, gut hormones are released into the circulation. Around 50%

Prevention and diabetic kidney disease

Diabetic kidney disease (nephropathy) is a major cause of death in people with diabetes. It affects about one-third of people with the condition. Recent studies have demonstrated that the onset and course of diabetic nephropathy can be improved very significantly by several kinds of intervention. However, these interventions have their greatest impact if made before or very early in the course of the development

Homocysteine and cardiovascular complications in diabetes

People with diabetes are prone to cardiovascular disease (CVD). In people with Type 2 diabetes, the rate of heart-related death is two to four times that in people without diabetes. Traditional risk factors for the build-up of cholesterol-rich plaques in the arteries (atherosclerosis), such as high blood pressure, obesity, smoking, and high blood fat levels (dyslipidaemia), are known to increase the cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes. However, other factors may be operative as well.

Staged Diabetes Management: improving diabetes care worldwide

Diabetes and the disorders associated with diabetes currently affect one billion people world wide. Surprisingly, specialists care for less than 2% of people with diabetes and its related disorders. General practitioners constitute the principal care providers for almost all of these people. The majority of these health professionals serve in an environment with very limited resources. Nevertheless, within such health-care systems, these resources can be optimized, and evidence-based medicine can be practised. Roger S Mazze reports on the potential improvements to

Bringing advanced therapies to market faster: a role for biosimulation?

In the last 10 years, genomic and proteomic technologies have been applied to identify and develop a new generation of diabetes treatments. While these technologies have become increasingly automated, producing a deluge of potential therapeutic targets and biological insights, projections estimate that individual drug development time and cost will continue to rise and soon exceed 1 billion USD. A significant contributor to this rising cost is the large