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Self-monitoring of blood glucose for people with type 2 diabetes: the need for better understanding

Diabetes increases a person’s risk of developing multiple health complications. But the risk of these can be significantly reduced by close control of blood glucose. Although directly monitoring glucose levels to inform adjustments in insulin levels is now a proven part of self-management for people with type 1 diabetes, the role of glucose monitoring for people with type 2 diabetes is less well established.

IDF guideline on self-management of blood glucose

In October 2008, the IDF Task Force on Clinical Guidelines, in conjunction with the Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose nternational Working Group, convened a workshop in Amsterdam to address the use of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in people with type 2 diabetes who are not treated with insulin. The recently published guidelines on the use of SMBG in people with type 2 diabetes were developed based on the findings of that workshop. A summary of the findings and recommendations is provided in this article.

Diabetes self-management education and support: the key to diabetes care

Diabetes education can be delivered using a variety of methods and in a range of settings: a lecture on, say, carbohydrates and glucose monitoring; an individual face-to-face meeting with an educator or a dietitian; a group session where an educator and people with diabetes can all act as educational resources. It can take place  in a classroom, an office or under a tree, supported by professionally produced photographs and posters or hand-drawn signs.

Improving self-care in young people with diabetes - the importance of self-efficacy

Young people are given responsibility in different ways and at different rates across cultures and families. However, families from different backgrounds face similar challenges in supporting the self-care of a young person with diabetes. Learning to consistently carry out daily diabetes self-care tasks involves the help and support of relevant people across the lifespan: parents, siblings, friends, extended family, spouses/partners, and ultimately, children.

A behavioural therapy approach to self-management: the Flinders Program

Chronic diseases, including diabetes, represent the most prevalent problem in healthcare today. They are the most common cause of disability and consume the largest part of health expenditures internationally. Most diabetes care is provided by people with diabetes and their family or supporters. Therefore, understanding how to enhance diabetes self-management is of primary importance in addressing this growing burden. The effective self-management of type 2 diabetes is closely linked to environmental factors and a person’s lifestyle.

Engaging in a shared vision for self-management: the WISE approach

In recent years, many initiatives from many sources have been aimed at improving people’s ability to manage a chronic medical condition – ranging from top-down policy programmes to small-scale projects developed by individuals. Work related to the care of people with diabetes has generally been at the forefront of this type of research. Policy-related programmes tend to focus on the most effective use of health services, and initiatives coming from individuals are more likely to be about sharing experiences of an effective treatment.

The Aboriginal Diabetes Initiative - tackling type 2 diabetes in Canada

In 2005, the Government of Canada provided a renewed investment of 190 million CAD over five years to maintain and enhance the Aboriginal Diabetes Initiative. The main goal of the Initiative is to reduce type 2 diabetes and its complications through a range of culturally relevant health promotion and prevention services, delivered by trained health service providers and diabetes workers. Supported by Aboriginal Diabetes Initiative funding, Aboriginal communities across Canada are working to prevent and  manage type 2 diabetes. Amy Bell reports.

Improving access to education and care in Cambodia

Four years ago, when Cambodia’s first diabetes surveys were analysed, they surprised everyone: there were twice as many people with diabetes than had been expected – more than 250,000 people. However, the major donors supporting the country’s healthcare sector continue to distribute financial support in unequal shares.

Agents for change: champions in the fight against diabetes in South Africa

The potential threat from type 2 diabetes in  South Africa remains dangerously underestimated and its current prevalence widely unrecognized. Yet the problem is growing at an alarming rate. A series of factors that are particular to the region represent enormous obstacles to an effective response by people with the condition, healthcare providers and wider society. In this article, Noy Pullen identifies some of the key socio-economic, environmental and educational issues affecting rural South Africa.

School as a resource for nutritional education and physical activity

Environmental  factors,  such  as  lifestyle  and  dietary choices, play a key role in determining a child’s body weight. Omnipresent and relentless advertising for low-quality convenience foods together with an over-reliance during leisure hours on television, computers and video games are driving an alarming increase in the incidence of obesity-related non-communicable diseases like type 2 diabetes among young people worldwide.

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