Clinical Care

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Oral health in people with diabetes: why should we care?

Diabetes can lead to important changes in the mouth. Oral infections in turn may adversely affect metabolic control and impact on the quality of life of people with diabetes. Over the years, however, caring for the mouth has been overlooked by physicians who have been focusing on other diabetes complications. Of particular concern to dentists and dental hygienists is the impact of diabetes on diseases affecting gum tissues and teeth – the most common cause of tooth loss in people with diabetes.

Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases: a serious link

The metabolic syndrome is becoming a global public health issue. Those affected have higher risk of suffering a heart attack or stroke – as well as of dying from such an event – compared with people without the syndrome. This cluster of factors is closely linked with the worldwide increases in type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. The resulting premature deaths and disabilities are set to cripple health budgets in both developed and developing countries. Criteria for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome entail a combination of cardio-metabolic risk factors.

Caring for people with chronic diseases: what should healthcare professionals know?

Much of the care given by healthcare providers around the world on a day-to-day basis can be described as ‘reactive’: people who think that they are ill present to a healthcare provider for a diagnosis and treatment. However, growing numbers of people with an established chronic disease need a different form of care, care that is structured and proactive. On a regular basis and following an agreed plan, they need to participate in regular review of their underlying chronic condition and its complications.

The effects of diabetes on depression and depression on diabetes

Diabetes can have both a daily and long-term impact on people with the condition – both physically and in terms of its psychosocial effects. It is now known that people with diabetes are at a substantially increased risk of experiencing mental distress, particularly depression. Furthermore, a growing bank of evidence points to a two-way relationship between the conditions. Yet depression is often under-diagnosed in people with diabetes.

Treating people with type 1 diabetes and eating disorders - the need for a multidisciplinary approach

Since early case reports in the 1980’s, there has been considerable interest in examining the connection between type 1 diabetes and eating disorders. Some researchers argue that the attention to food portions (especially carbohydrates), blood glucose, body weight, and exercise that are characteristic of standard medical treatment for type 1 diabetes resembles the rigid thinking about food and body image that is characteristic of people with eating disorders without diabetes.

The genetics of type 2 diabetes - a look at the scientific advances of the DGDG project

The International Diabetes Federation estimates that approximately 246 million people around the world have diabetes. Of this number, around 90% are people with type 2 diabetes. The consequences for public health worldwide are devastating. The World Health Organization estimates that one in 20 deaths in the world is caused by diabetes, and that up to 15% of the annual budget for healthcare is devoted to the disease.

Alzheimer's, dementia and diabetes - where are the connections?

Diabetes is considered to be a kind of accelerated aging – by increasing a person’s susceptibility to degenerative conditions, including kidney disease, retinopathy, hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, and atherosclerosis. Recently, evidence has accumulated to suggest that diabetes also plays a role in accelerated brain aging. But while it is known that diabetes may be associated with an increased risk of dementia, the exact mechanisms and mitigating factors remain unclear.


Global standardization of the HbA1c assay - the consensus committee recommendations

Since the late 1970s, HbA1c test results have been used to guide diabetes care. The International A1c-AG Study, under way in 10 centres in North America, Europe, and Africa, aims to explore the relationship between HbA1c and average blood glucose. Martin Silink and Jean-Claude Mbanya, who represent IDF on a consensus committee working towards the standardization of the HbA1c assay, report on developments in the measurement and reporting of long- term average blood glucose levels.

The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: the IDF consensus

The importance of identifying children who are at risk of developing the metabolic syndrome cannot be underestimated. The syndrome is a cluster of risk factors

The frustrations of trying to lose weight and the alternative of bariatric surgery

Aged 42 years, ‘S’, friend and colleague of the author, weighed 204 kg. Now, three years later, after undergoing intensive dieting and psychotherapy, she has lost nearly 10% of her body weight. But she remains 38 BMI units over and above the 30 kg/m threshold for the ‘obese’ category; she is in the range of ‘morbid obesity’. In a few weeks she will undergo dramatic abdominal surgery for this condition. Rhys Williams tells her story.

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