Currently in Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice



    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice (DRCP) is the official
    journal of the International Diabetes Federation.

    The following articles have recently appeared
    or are about to appear in that journal.



Cost-of-Illness Studies in Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review

Ng CS, Lee JYC, Toh MP et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014; 105: 151-63.

“The aims of this study are two-fold: (1) to describe the methods used in ... cost-of-illness studies of DM [Diabetes Mellitus] and (2) to summarise their study findings regarding the economic impact of DM. ... The systematic search yielded 30 articles. These studies varied considerably in their study design ... Estimates for the total annual cost of DM ranged from US$141.6 million to US$174 billion ... Inpatient cost was the major contributor to direct cost in half of the studies that included inpatient costs.”


Diabetes Care may be Improved with Steno Quality Assurance Tool – A Self-Assessment Tool in Diabetes Management

Bjerre-Christensen U, Nielsen C, Binder JB et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014; 105: 192-98.

This study aimed “to evaluate if improvements in the quality of diabetes care in Indian clinics can be obtained by simple self-surveillance PC-based software. ... Data was entered for an initial 3 months period. Subsequent data were analysed by the users, who designed plans to improve indicator status [frequency of foot examination and lipid, urine albumin excretion and HbA1c measurements] and set goals for the upcoming period. ... Outcome parameters [blood glucose and blood pressure] improved significantly.”


Interventions to Maintain Cardiac Risk Control After Discharge from a Cardiac Risk Reduction Clinic: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Taveira TH, Wu W-C. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014; 105: 327-35.

This study aimed “To evaluate the efficacy of two maintenance strategies compared to usual care after discharge from a pharmacist-led cardiovascular risk reduction clinic (CRRC). ... Participants were randomised to either [1] quarterly group medical visits or [2] quarterly CRRC individual clinic visits, or [3] a usual care control arm with the standard primary care alone. ... both individual and group interventions are more effective in maintaining glycaemia and blood pressure control for patients with diabetes than usual care after 1-year of follow-up.”


Time to do more: addressing clinical inertia in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Strain WD, Cos X, Hirst M, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014; published on line 23 June 2014: doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2014.05.005

Quoted as one of the references in David Strain’s article on the Time2DoMoreTM study featured in this Issue, this paper provides a more comprehensive account of the survey and its findings.
“The principal findings of this survey suggest that impairments in communication are at the heart of clinical inertia. This manuscript lays out four key principles that we believe are achievable in all environments and can improve the lives of people with diabetes.”


Call-to-action: timely and appropriate treatment for people with type 2 diabetes in Latin America

Escalante M, Gagliardino JJ, Guzmán, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014; 104: 343-52.

Also on the topic of “clinical inertia”: “In order to improve future diabetes care, it will be necessary to address existing problems such as limitation of resources, inadequate management of hyperglycaemia, and inappropriate education of healthcare team members and people with diabetes. Achieving these goals will require collaborative efforts by many individuals, groups and organizations. These include policymakers, international organizations, healthcare providers, those responsible for setting medical school curricula, patients and society as a whole.”


Risk assessment tools for detecting those with pre-diabetes: a systematic review

Barber SR, Davies MJ, Khunti K et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014; 105: 1-13.

“Eighteen tools met the inclusion criteria. ... Several risk scores are available to identify those with pre-diabetes. Before these are used in practice, the level of calibration and validity of the tools in the population of interest should be assessed.”


International Diabetes Federation Atlas papers

Guariguata L and 50 other authors. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014; 103: 137-255.

A series of 12 papers providing recent global estimates for a range of topics relevant to diabetes and hyperglycaemia in pregnancy, together with data and discussion specific to IDF regions.


International Diabetes Federation Guidelines

International Diabetes Federation Guideline Development Group. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014; 103: 256-68.

Guideline for management of postmeal glucose in diabetes – an update which builds on the original IDF guideline published in 2007.


Depression and type 2 diabetes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Mendenhall E, Norris SA, Shidhaye R, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014; 103: 276-85.

Research studies identified relevant to this topic included those from India (n = 8), Mexico (n = 8), Brazil (n = 5) and China (n = 5). One of the authors’ conclusions is that “despite substantial diabetes burden in LMICs [low- and middle-income countries], few [studies] have reviewed comorbid depression and diabetes”. The review, nevertheless, suggests that depression among people with diabetes in LIMCs may be higher than in high-income countries.


Glycaemic and haemoglobin A1c thresholds for detecting diabetic retinopathy: the fifth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (2011)

Park YM, Ko SH, Lee JM, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014; doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2014.04.003

"Few representative population-based data are available regarding glycaemic and HbA1c thresholds for detecting diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Asia. We investigated the association between DR and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c levels among Korean adults."


Diagnostic criteria and classification of hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy

Article in Press: Available online

An update of the 1999 WHO diagnostic criteria which takes into consideration new evidence from the HAPO study; proposes a new classification for hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy; removes 1999 ambiguity with regard to fasting plasma glucose values and clarifies ambiguities in the IADPSG’s criteria related to ranges of plasma glucose values for distinguishing diabetes in pregnancy and GDM.

The effectiveness and safety of beginning insulin aspart together with basal insulin in people with type 2 diabetes in non-Western nations: results from the A1chieve observational study

Home PD, Latif ZA, González-Gálvez G et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2013; 101: 326-32.

"A1chieve was a 24-week non-interventional study evaluating insulin analogues in 66,726 people with type 2 diabetes in routine clinical care in 28 non-Western countries. … The data support the use of basal plus prandial insulin regimens in routine clinical practice in people with type 2 diabetes with inadequate control."

Read the full article here


Insulin detemir in the management of type 2 diabetes in non-Western countries: safety and effectiveness data from the A1chieve observational study

Zilov A, El Naggar N, Sha S et al.  Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2013; 101: 317-25.

"This subgroup analysis of the A1chieve study examined data from 15,545 people who started treatment with insulin detemir ± oral glucose-lowering drugs in routine clinical care. … People with type 2 diabetes in poor glycaemic control starting treatment with insulin detemir reported significant improvements in glycaemic control with improved treatment tolerability … after 24 weeks."

Read the full article here


Diabetes Attitudes Wishes and Needs 2 (DAWN2): a multinational, multi-stakeholder study of psychosocial issues in diabetes and person-centred diabetes care

Peyrot M, Kovacs Burns K, Davies M, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2013; 99: 174-84.

Provides details of the methods used in the DAWN2 study – the sampling of respondents (people with diabetes, family members of people with diabetes and healthcare professionals) in 17 countries and the research instruments used.

Read the full article here

Type 1 diabetes and living without a partner: psychological and social aspects, self-management behaviour and glycaemic control

Joensen LE, Almdal TP, Willaing I. Diabetes Res Clin Pract (published online 29 July, 2013).

"Cross-sectional survey of 2419 adult outpatients with type 1 diabetes from a specialized diabetes clinic in Denmark. … Social network and social support are related to important diabetes outcomes in type 1 diabetes. Living without a partner indicates a need for support to prevent poorer diabetes outcomes."

Read the full article here

Diabetes in the Middle East and North Africa

Zabetian A, Keli HM, Echouffo-Tcheugui JB, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2013; 101: 106-22.

"This review suggests the need for more representative surveillance data in this noteworthy focal point of the global diabetes epidemic. Such actions will not only help to understand the actual burden of diabetes but also motivate actions on design and implementation of diabetes prevention and control programmes."

Read the full article here

Impact of blood glucose monitoring affect on family conflict and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

Gray WN, Dolan LM, Hood KK. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2013; 99: 130-5.

"This longitudinal study examined whether diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control were impacted/explained by negative affective responses to blood glucose checks."

Read the full article here

Global Diabetes Survey – An annual report on quality of diabetes care

Schwarz PEH, Gallein G, Ebermann D, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2013; 100: 11-8.

"The Global Diabetes Survey … is a standardised, annual, global questionnaire that will be used to assess responses of representatives from 19 diabetes-related stakeholder groups … The findings will be freely available for everyone’s use and will be used to inform politicians and stakeholders to encourage the improvement of the quality of diabetes care in its medical, economical, structural and political dimensions."

Read the full article here

Are recommended standards for diabetes care met in Central and South America? A systematic review

Mudaliar U, Kim W-C, Kirk K, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2013; 100: 306-29.

"We evaluated quality of diabetes care in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) of Central and South America … We also identified barriers to achieving goals of treatment and characteristics of successful programs. … Few studies report quality of diabetes care in LMICs of the Americas, and heterogeneity across studies limits our understanding. Greater regard for audits, use of standardized reporting methods, and an emphasis on overcoming barriers to care are required."

Read the full article here

Results that matter: Structured vs. unstructured self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes

Parkin CG, Buskirk A, Hinnen DA, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2012; 97: 6-15.

"This article reviews recent studies that appropriately utilized structured SMBG as an integral component of comprehensive diabetes management and discusses how their findings support the IDF recommendations."

Read the full article here

Self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes: Is the debate (finally) ending?
Ceriello A. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2012; 97: 1-2.

" … structured SMBG is a valid tool for the better management of type 2 diabetes not on insulin therapy, but only if both patients and health care professionals are trained on how to respond to the data for SMBG to be effective."

Read the full article here

Universal screening to identify gestational diabetes: A multi-centre study in the North of England
Hayes L, Bilous R, Brandon H et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2013 (In Press).

" … an audit of treatment and outcomes in 116 women with gestational diabetes. These women received intense monitoring and high levels of medical and obstetric intervention. 24% would not have been identified by risk factor based screening. Cost effective strategies to identify all women with gestational diabetes are needed."

Read the full article here