Diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are both global epidemics. They are currently among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly affecting populations in low- and middle-income populations. Their negative effects are accelerated by globalization, rapid unplanned urbanization and increasingly sedentary lifestyles.
People with diabetes are two to three times more likely to have cardiovascular disease than people without diabetes. High levels of blood glucose can make the blood coagulation system more active, increasing the risk of blood clots. Diabetes is also associated with high blood pressure and cholesterol levels, which lead to increased risk of cardiovascular complications such as angina, coronary artery diseases (CADs), myocardial infaction, stroke, peripheral artery disease (PAD), and congestive heart failure.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels and include:
Coronary heart disease: disease of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle
Cerebrovascular disease: disease of the blood vessels supplying the brain
Peripheral arterial disease: disease of blood vessels supplying the arms and legs
Rheumatic heart disease: damage to the heart muscle and heart valves from rheumatic fever, caused by streptococcal bacteria
Congenital heart disease: malformations of heart structure existing at birth: deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism - blood clots in the leg veins, which can dislodge and move to the heart and lungs